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Distal renal tubular acidosis. Clinical manifestations in patients with different underlying gene mutations.

August 31 2018
Alonso-Varela M, et al. Pediatr Nephrol. 2018 "To evaluate whether there are differences in the phenotype of primary distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA) patients according to the causal defective gene".

Methods: Twenty-seven non-oriental patients with genetically confirmed dRTA were grouped according to the identified underlying mutations in either ATP6V1B1 (n = 10), ATP6V0A4 (n = 12), or SLC4A1 (n = 5) gene. Demographic features, growth impairment, biochemical variables and presence of deafness, nephrocalcinosis, and urolithiasis at diagnosis were compared among the three groups.

Results: Patients with SLC4A1 mutations presented later than those with ATP6V1B1 or ATP6V0A4 defects (120 vs. 7 and 3 months, respectively). Hearing loss at diagnosis was present in the majority of patients with ATP6V1B1 mutations, in two patients with ATP6V0A4 mutations, and in none of cases harboring SLC4A1 mutations. Serum potassium concentration (X ± SD) was higher in SLC4A1 group (3.66 ± 0.44 mEq/L) than in ATP6V0A4 group (2.96 ± 0.63 mEq/L) (p = 0.046). There were no differences in the other clinical or biochemical variables analyzed in the three groups.

Conclusions: This study indicates that non-oriental patients with dRTA caused by mutations in the SLC4A1 gene present later and have normokalemia or milder hypokalemia. Hypoacusia at diagnosis is characteristically associated with ATP6V1B1 gene mutations although it may also be present in infants with ATP6V0A4 defects. Other phenotypical manifestations do not allow predicting the involved gene.