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Risk of cardiovascular involvement in pediatric patients with X-linked hypophosphatemia.

March 21 2019
Hernández-Frías O, Gil-Peña H, Pérez-Roldán JM, González-Sanchez S, Ariceta G, Chocrón S, Loza R, de la Cerda Ojeda F, Madariaga L, Vergara I, Fernández-Fernández M, Ferrando-Monleón S, Antón-Gamero M, Fernández-Maseda Á, Luis-Yanes MI, Santos F. Pediatr Nephrol, 2019

OBJECTIVE:

To find out if cardiovascular alterations are present in pediatric patients with X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH).

STUDY DESIGN:

Multicentre prospective clinical study on pediatric patients included in the RenalTube database ( www.renaltube.com ) with genetically confirmed diagnosis of XLH by mutations in the PHEX gene. The study's protocol consisted of biochemical work-up, 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM), carotid ultrasonography, and echocardiogram. All patients were on chronic treatment with phosphate supplements and 1-hydroxy vitamin D metabolites.

RESULTS:

Twenty-four patients (17 females, from 1 to 17 years of age) were studied. Serum concentrations (X ± SD) of phosphate and intact parathyroid hormone were 2.66 ± 0.60 mg/dl and 58.3 ± 26.8 pg/ml, respectively. Serum fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) concentration was 278.18 ± 294.45 pg/ml (normal < 60 pg/ml). Abnormally high carotid intima media thickness was found in one patient, who was obese and hypertensive as revealed by ABPM, which disclosed arterial hypertension in two other patients. Z scores for echocardiographic interventricular septum end diastole and left ventricular posterior wall end diastole were + 0.77 ± 0.77 and + 0.94 ± 0.86, respectively. Left ventricular mass index (LVMI) was 44.93 ± 19.18 g/m2.7, and four patients, in addition to the obese one, had values greater than 51 g/m2.7, indicative of left ventricular hypertrophy. There was no correlation between these echocardiographic parameters and serum FGF23 concentrations.

CONCLUSIONS:

XLH pediatric patients receiving conventional treatment have echocardiographic measurements of ventricular mass within normal reference values, but above the mean, and 18% have LVMI suggestive of left ventricular hypertrophy without correlation with serum FGF23 concentrations. This might indicate an increased risk of cardiovascular involvement in XLH.